Briteowls/ March 8, 2018/ Uncategorized/ 0 comments

Metacognition (Thinking about your thinking)

Metacognition is thinking about one’s own thinking. (Meta = over, Cognition =  thinking, so literally “thinking over one’s own
thought processes)

This means that metacognition is being aware of what you know and don’t know, understanding what you will need to know for a certain task and having an idea of how to use your current skills to learn what you don’t know.

We as adults use metacognition all the time in our lives, the goal is to teach the students how to use it as well as to make them successful readers.

Think Aloud strategy is the most effective way to teach metacognition to children. The teacher models her thinking as instructing a new lesson, with this strategy the student will be able to follow the teacher’s thinking process.

KWL Chart is another excellent tool to explain this. It’s a chart that has 3 columns titled as: “Know”, “Want to know” & “Learned”.

The “Know” column explains your prior knowledge, the “Want to Know” column is the motivation to read, what do we need to know in this subject and the “Learned” column allows students to use metacognitive skills to categorize what they have learned through their reading

Metacognitive skill is when students can explain where they got their ideas, correct their own miscues or re-read a
 text because it seems to contradict with their predictions and assumptions.

  • Plan & Organize: Before beginning a task, set your goals, plan for the task and how to accomplish this task.

  • Monitor & Identify Problems: While working on a task, check your progress, your understanding, “does this make sense?” & “What is the problem?”

  • Evaluate: When you finish the task, assess how well you finished this task and how did you use learning strategies & identify which strategy that works best for you to achieve similar task next time.

  • Improve your own learning: Try and determine the best way that helped you learn the best, identify ways to practice and focus on the task.

Other strategies include self assessments, self monitoring, revising & self questioning will all helps develop the metacognitive thinking during child development stages.

The study of metacognition has helped students to be more aware of their learning process and how to be successful learners by assessing and choosing the best strategy that will help them to learn.

 

References

Borkowski, J., Carr, M., & Pressely, M. (1987). “Spontaneous” strategy use: Perspectives from metacognitive theory. Intelligence, 11, 61-75.

Brown, A. L. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. In F. E. Weinert & R. H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding(pp. 65-116). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Carr, M., Kurtz, B. E., Schneider, W., Turner, L. A., & Borkowski, J. G. (1989). Strategy acquisition and transfer among German and American children: Environmental influences on metacognitive development. Developmental Psychology, 25, 765-771.

Garner, R. (1990). When children and adults do not use learning strategies: Toward a theory of settings. Review of Educational Research, 60, 517-529.

Halpern, D. F. (1996). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Livingston, J. A. (1996). Effects of metacognitive instruction on strategy use of college students. Unpublished manuscript, State University of New York at Buffalo.

Roberts, M. J., & Erdos, G. (1993). Strategy selection and metacognition. Educational Psychology, 13, 259-266.

Scheid, K. (1993). Helping students become strategic learners: Guidelines for teaching. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

Sternberg, R. J. (1984). What should intelligence tests test? Implications for a triarchic theory of intelligence for intelligence testing. Educational Researcher, 13 (1), 5-15.

Sternberg, R. J. (1986a). Inside intelligence. American Scientist, 74, 137-143.

Sternberg, R. J. (1986b). Intelligence applied. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers.

Van Zile-Tamsen, C. M. (1994). The role of motivation in metacognitive self-regulation. Unpublished manuscript, State University of New York at Buffalo.

Van Zile-Tamsen, C. M. (1996). Metacognitive self-regualtion and the daily academic activities of college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo.

Flavell, J.H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive moni- toring: A new era of cognitive developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906-911.

Flavell, J.H. (1987). Speculations about the nature and development of metacognition.

R.H. Kluwe & F.E. Weinerrt (Eds.), metacognition, moti- vation, and learning (pp. 21-30). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

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